https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g002. Its alkaline property neutralizes soil acidity. Crop cultivation experiments were conducted using actual tsunami-affected paddy fields. In conclusion, application of steel slag reduced soil acidity, increased plant–availability of silicon, promoted rice growth and inhibited Cd transport to rice grain in the soil-plant system. The main co-products produced during iron and crude steel production are slags (90% by mass), dusts and sludges. Applying Si fertilizer to Si–deficient soil is beneficial for sustained rice production [40–41]. Did you know that all silicate fertilizer used in Korea is made from POSCO slag? Mean values followed by different letters (a, b, c) in the same season are significantly different (P< 0.05). When steel slag was applied to paddy soil, such compositions as CaO and MgO dissolved in water with the release of OH–, thus increasing soil pH. The fertilizer contains 25-30% of soluble silicic acid that boosts photosynthesis in rice plants; and 40-48% of alkalinity which improves soil quality. Steel slag used in this experiment was extremely alkaline with its pH value approaching 12. Washing machine is a kind of cleaning equipment of international advanced level for sand and slag ... Index > crusher>equipment in a fertilizer plant process ... Read more. Figure 15 shows the changes in Na content of pore water in 2012. Steel slags contain numerous nutrient elements, such as CaO (40–50%), SiO2 (10–28%), as well as small amounts of MgO (2.5–10%), Fe-total (17–27%) and MnO (1.5–6%) [19]. 6, but the effect of the fertilizer application was more clearly observed in the column test. Yes A good example is steelmaking slag: quicklime and magnesite are introduced for refractory protection, neutralising the alumina and silica separated from the metal, and assist in the removal of sulfur and phosphorus from the steel. 7) Is the Subject Area "Rice" applicable to this article? Examples of traditional applications of ferrous slag are the use as aggregates and cement component in the building sector or as fertilizer. Steel slag is the main waste product in the steelmaking process. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Pb concentrations of rice grain in all the treatments were below the maximum allowable limit value (0.2 mg kg-1). Affiliation Slag, which is a by-product of ironmaking at steelworks, contains 25-30% of soluble silicic acid. Summary of harvest results in 2012 and 2013. Cultivation Experiments in the Paddy Fields, 3.1. The amounts of Si applied, equivalent to 0.5 M HCl-soluble Si, was 0 (CK), 400 (Si1), 800 (Si2) and 1200 (Si3) 1600 (Si4), 2000 (Si5) mg SiO2 per kg soil. Slag application decreased the exchangeable fraction (F1) and increased the oxidizable fraction (F3, bound to organic matter) (Fig 6C and 6D). Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS 18.0 and all figures were drawn using Origin 8.0 software. With the rapid industrialization and economic development in the recent decades, soil heavy metal pollution has been becoming a serious environmental problem in China [11, 12]. Sucrose slag organic fertilizer production line Complete plant. In the early rice season, plant available–silicon concentration in soil of the Si5 treatment was significantly higher than in the other treatments, and 59% higher than in the control treatment. and the phosphorous extracted to produce fertilizer. This decrease, however, could not be only attributed to the pH-rise-caused immobilization of Cd in soil. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g005, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.t003. The first factor influencing plant available–silicon concentration may be associated with the different weather conditions in the two seasons. Two days later, the germinated seeds were placed on a float tray in a controlled environment with a day/night temperature of 25°C (12 h): 25°C (12 h). The steel slag fertilizer was applied as the basic fertilizer in each season before rice transplanting. N.  Maruoka,  M.  Okubo,  H.  Shibata,  X.  Gao,  T.  Ito and  S.  Kitamura: M.  Okubo,  N.  Maruoka,  H.  Shibata,  X.  Gao,  T.  Ito and  S.  Kitamura: T.  Ito,  W.  Nasukara,  M.  Saito and  S.  Kitamura: Rural Development Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan: Desalting Manual of Farmland, (2011). After being processed, steel slag can be used as smelter flux, cement raw material, construction aggregate, foundation backfill, railway ballast, road pavement, brick, slag fertilizer and soil amendment, etc. Steel LD slag can also be used in fertilizers for agricultural applications (Das et al., 2007). Iron oxide present in LD-slag forms a phase, tetra calcium alumino ferrite (C4AF) which has an adverse effect on the quality of cement'''. The Pb concentrations of rice grain in all the treatments were found to be below the maximum allowable limit level (0.2 mg kg-1) (GB 2762–2005). No, Is the Subject Area "Heavy metals" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163, Received: September 11, 2016; Accepted: November 27, 2016; Published: December 14, 2016. Siliceous slag fertilizer is made with slag, which is stony by-product separated from molten iron during the smelting or refining of ore. CaO phases dissolved quickly. Depending on the iron and steel production process different slag types can be manufactured. The initial plant available–silicon concentration in soil was 91.6 mg kg-1 SiO2. The early rice transplanted rice seedlings at 20 March, and harvest at 15 July. The cadmium concentrations in rice grains decreased significantly compared with the control treatment. (4) The initial Ca content of DS was much lower than that of OS, due to depletion by the desalting operation. The ferrugeneous portion of LD-slag can be separated by magnetic separation technique. In this experiment, application of steel slag had no effect on the total Cd concentration in soil (Fig 5A). 9, but it decreased rapidly with time as the rice plant absorbed it with growth. Each year, about 45 million tonnes of ferrous slag (iron and steel slag) is generated in Europe. Two possibilities can be envisaged to explain the decrease of Cd mobility in soils by steel slag. Accepted for publication 16 June 2015. These tissues were then ground to pass through a 0.5-mm sieve for Si analysis. Keywords: slag, environment, iron, steel, recycling, blast furnace, steelmaking, ladle metallurgy, slag splashing, construction. Lead was mainly distributed in the Fe/Mn oxide fraction (F2, 50%) and residual fraction (F4, 40%). The slag is then dehydrated or pulverized into pellet-like shapes to become the final product. Thirty days later, basal fertilizers supplied were 0.2 g N kg-1 as urea, 52 mg P kg-1 as potassium dihydrogen phosphate, and 84 mg K kg-1 as potassium sulfate. The Cd concentration of early rice grain and late rice grain was 48% and 63.5% lower in the Si5 treatment than in the control treatment, respectively. The dissolution behaviors of nutrient elements from fertilizer made of slag were investigated by the column test. China is the largest producer of steel in the world, huge amounts of steel slag are produced every year in China [17], but only 10% of the steel slag is recycled [18]. The fertilizer made of slag increased Ca and Si but the change in Na was not evident. The results are summarized below. Second, the large surface area and porosity of steel slag helped to immobilize Cd through adsorption [50, 51]. Slag ― a mixture of silica and calcium, magnesium and iron oxides ― can be used as a fertilizer that can assist in fortifying disease resistance in rice because of its mineral components. Thus, steel slags can be considered as a sustainable alternative to agricultural practice. (1) The Ca content in pore water increased by the application of fertilizer made of slag, but the Na content did not change significantly, similar to the trends observed by the column tests. The paddy fields were divided into nine plots (20 m × 12 m in width); 200 g/m2 and 400 g/m2 of fertilizer made of slag were applied to a part of the rice field in 2012, and then the rice cultivation experiment was conducted. Yes Ca content in the stems and leaves of the paddy harvested from each group of plots in 2012 and 2013. The dry weight of these tissues was recorded after being oven-dried at 75°C till a constant weight. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g004. Effective elements in blast furnace slag are Ca, Si and Mg. 3, but the decreasing trend with time was not observed in the column test. fertiliser. Steel slags can be used in several activities, such as construction and paving, and also in the agricultural sector due to its ability to correct soil acidity, as it contains some nutrients for the plants and also as silicate fertilizer that is capable of providing silicon to the plants. However, it is strange to note that plant available–silicon concentration in soil of the Si5 treatment in the late rice season remained unchanged as compared with the same treatment in the early rice season (Fig 2). In conclusion, steel slag was an effective amendment for soil acidity adjustment, plant silicon nutrition and stabilization of Cd in acidic soils. The feasibility of steel slag used as an iron fertilizer was studied in a pot experiment with corn. Soil pH increased with increasing steel slag application rate (Fig 1). The residual effect of the fertilizer was kept observed in 2013, although the additional fertilizer was not applied. (2) The pH values increased over time until they reached a constant near 30 days; they also rose consistently throughout the experiment by the application of fertilizer made of slag. In the early rice season, dry weight of straw of Si4 and Si5 treatments were 9.52% and 11.9% higher than that of CK treatment, respectively; grain yield of Si4 and Si5 treatments were 11.9% and 13.9% higher than that of CK treatment, respectively. Yes 3, pp. Our results show that application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil increased soil pH, dry weight of rice straw and grain, plant-available Si concentration and Si concentration in rice shoots compared with the control treatment. Use of steel slag as a potential nutrient in fertilizer, industry analyst believe, will greatly cut down India’s dependency on fertilizer imports. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. Change in the Ca content of pore water in paddy field in 2012 and 2013. PLoS ONE 11(12): In the late rice season, application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 200 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil significantly increased dry weight of straw compared with CK treatment, and equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil significantly increased grain yield, with 14.3% and 16.7% higher in the Si4 and Si5 treatments respectively. The dissolution of Si from the slag used was enhanced by an increase in temperature [36]. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Both steel slag and iron slag are effective in this regard. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s005, A. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by ISIJ innovative program for advanced technology, Iron & Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). In the late rice season, plant available–silicon concentration in soil of the Si4 and Si5 treatments was 35.5% and 41.5% higher than in the control treatment, respectively. '•The slag from the Thomas-Gilchrist process for making steel has long been supposed to have valuable properties as a manure. Fengyuanyou 299) used was a hybrid cultivar, characterized by its mid-late maturity. Data are means of three replicates. The enhanced soil pH and soil available Si content may contribute to a decrease the available concentration of heavy metals by reducing metal mobility and bonding metals into more stable fractions. Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. 2 Steelmaking Plant, JFE Steel developed DRPTM (Double-slag Refining Process), in which dephosphorization blowing is performed after desiliconization blowing and discharge of the resulting high SiO2 slag out of the system, while also melting scrap by … Figure 16 summarizes the yield of brown rice. Application of Fertilizer Made of Steelmaking Slag in the Recovery of Paddy Fields Damaged by the Tsunami of 2011. The iron and steel slag that is generated as a byproduct of iron and steel manufacturing processes can be broadly categorized into blast furnace slag and steelmaking slag Read more The Basic Oxygen Steelmaking (BOS) Process Silicon application significantly decreased Cd concentration in the xylem sap and Si-mediated detoxification of Cd in maize plants [46]. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Steel works slag is a by-product of the basic oxygen steel making process used by orus at their Port Talbot, Scunthorpe and Teeside works. Daily average temperature was about 8°C higher in the late rice season than in the early rice season. Table 2. 5. In addition, the incremental trend of silicate contents in the pore water in the slag application plots was similar to the results of the column test a more apparent than. It has been debated whether long-term stability of heavy metals is altered by incorporation of steel slag and similar materials into soil. However, it decreased the percentage of exchangeable fraction and increased that of reducible and residual fraction (Fig 6A and 6B). Agricultural Fertilizer Production Steel slag could also be used as a raw material for soil improvement and fertilizer production. The maximum application rate of Mo slag to soil in present study is 10.0% (w/w). Yes Change in the Si content of pore water in paddy field in 2012 and 2013. It was reported that continuous dissolution of Si from steel slag was negatively influenced by the increase of soil solution pH and Ca concentration. Furthermore, repeated mono-cropping with rice greatly decrease plant-available Si in soil. Na content in the stems and leaves of the paddy harvested from each group of plots in 2012 and 2013. Basic slag It is a by-product from the steel industry. The soil tested is a paddy soil (anthropogenic soil) derived from red soil (Ultisol). LD steel slag as fertilizer in agriculture. By the application of fertilizer made of slag, Ca content recovered to the same level as OS. Mean values followed by different letters (a, b, c) in the same season are significantly different (P< 0.05). here. Slag alone or acidified slag was added to two Fe-deficient calcareous soils at different rates. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Applying Si fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for both high rice yield and brown spot resistance. The soil used was sampled from Qiyang, Hunan province of South China, (no specific permissions were required for soil sampling in this location and the field in this study did not involve endangered or protected species). POSCO has contributed to increase farm income by continuously supplying slag to fertilizer companies since 1974, the year after the Pohang Works began operation. Convert Steel Slag Into Fertilizers; ... is a process which involves converting powder into a ... Read more. In 2013, the rice cultivation experiment was conducted again without the application of fertilizer made of steelmaking slag. Rice is a typical Si–accumulating plant species. Yes Our brand name 'SuperSlag Basic' has become increasingly well known in the industry. However, total concentrations of heavy metals in soil provide very limited information about their chemical behavior and potential fate [27, 28]. The second factor may be related to the residual effect of steel slag applied in the first season. The available silicon and calcium concentrations in slag were determined following extraction by 0.5 M HCl [slag/(HCl) ratio of 1:50] and shaken for 1 h. Si was analyzed by the colorimetric silicon molybdenum blue method and Ca was analyzed by AAS [36]. Although Si has not been considered as an essential nutrient for plant, there is increasing evidence proved that Si is beneficial for rice growth, development and resistance against abiotic (metal toxicity, salt and drought stress, nutrient imbalance) and biotic stress (plant diseases and insect pests) [3–6]. Kim and  S.  Kitamura: H.  Shinozaki: Enchiridion of Fertilizer, 6th ed., Rural Culture Association Japan, Tokyo, (2008). 17, 18, 19. Phase fraction and the composition of each phase. Steel making slag (also: steel slag) is produced during the conversion of hot metal to crude steel in a basic oxygen furnace or during the melting of scrap in an electric arc furnace. Table 3 show the BCR concentrations of heavy metals in steel slag. Steel plant slags mainly include blast furnace slag and steel melting slag (open hearth or LD process slag). In the present study, disease incidence and severity (e.g., blast, sheath blight and leaf spot etc.) Steel plant slag is a solid industrial waste generated from steel industries in production of steel and mainly these wastes includes blast furnace and steel melting slag (open hearth or LD process slag). All data in figures and tables were shown as means ± SD of three replicates. Dry weight and silicon concentration of rice tissues. B. 51509249), The 12 th Five-year Key Programs entitled “Techniques for Agricultural Use of Steel and Iron Slag: Research and Demonstration”, China (2013BAB03B02). The pile of steel slag occupies a huge area of arable land, and causes environmental pollution; moreover, 7%-15% steel can be recycled from steel slag. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g007. Fertilizer. The increased pH could enhance the specific adsorption of silicic acid by soil, thus a relatively large percentage of water soluble Si derived from both the soil and the slags could be adsorbed by the soil solid phase [42]. K.  Kyuma: Paddy Soil Science. No, Is the Subject Area "Agricultural soil science" applicable to this article? A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on plant available-silicon concentration in soil. M.  Numata,  N.  Maruoka,  S-j. In addition, the column test can be considered as a useful method to predict the effects of the fertilizer made of steelmaking slag on rice cultivation. In the present field experiment, we found that application of steel slag significantly decreased Cd absorption into rice grain (Fig 7A). Mean values followed by different letters (a, b, c) in the same season are significantly different (P< 0.05). From the results above, it is confirmed that the general trend of pore water and soil in the actual paddy can be simulated by the column test, except for the change in Si content with time in pore water. After the vessel had been cooled, the solution was filtered and diluted to 25 mL with 0.5 M HCl. Meanwhile, compared with the same treatment in different seasons, plant available–silicon concentration in soil was higher in the late rice season than in the early rice season (except Si5). How to Garden With Basic Slag. In the Bessemer converter, there is a lining of lime which, in the process of manufacturing the steel, takes up a large percentage of phosphorus, in the form of phosphoric acid. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Many studies demonstrate that steel slag–based silicate fertilizer was effective in improving both the quality of the degraded paddy soils and the yield and quality of crops [22, 33, 38]. Rice is also a typical Si hyper-accumulating plant species, containing Si up to 10% in shoots on a dry weight basis [2]. B. Based on accumulated experience in the steel byproduct recycling business in the domestic steel industry, we run blag furnace slag and steel slag, factory scale business and recycle business at PT.Krakatau Posco steel plant. Editorial Committee of Soil Environment Analysis: Soil Environment Analysis, Hakuyusha, Tokyo, (1997). C. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on relative content of Pb in each fraction of soil in early rice. According to these results, fertilizer made of steelmaking slag can improve the damage to rice plants caused by Na ion through the supplementation of Ca, enhancement of the soil nitrogen mineralization by increasing the pH, and acceleration of photosynthesis by the addition of Si. Rice plants were harvested at maturity, and separated into stem, leaf, and grain, and then washed thoroughly with distilled water. Five Si treatments with three replicates each were designed. Silicate lime fertilisers (blast furnace lime and converter lime) are approved fertilizers in Germany since more than 60 and 30 years, respectively. On the basis of the above results, the fertilizer made of steelmaking slag can amend the damage to rice plants caused by Na ion through the supplementation of Ca, enhancement of the soil nitrogen mineralization by increasing the pH, and acceleration of photosynthesis by the supplementation of Si. Steel slag is derived in iron and steel production. Production of slag silicate fertilizer in Japan peaked at 1,400,000 t per year in 1968 (Kato 2002) and decreased Correspondence: K. ITO, Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 20-1 Shintomi, Futtsu, Chiba 2938511, Japan. Soil … The results of our previous works showed that essential Ca and Si elements were effectively supplied by the dicalcium silicate phase (C2S) while the glassy phase of the CaO–SiO2–FeO system served as an Fe source. ( Montalvo et al., 2018 ). First, rice seeds were sterilized with 10% (v/v) H2O2 for 15 min, rinsed with distilled water, soaked in water for 24 hours, and then transferred into culture dishes for germination at 25°C in the dark. HOME > About Iron and Steel Slag > About Iron and Steel Slag > Fertilizers Because blast furnace slag contains fertilizer components CaO, SiO 2, and MgO, it is used in … Working topics. The range of Ca content was also close to that observed with column test, shown in Fig. e0168163. Soil pH was determined in 1:2.5 soil/water suspensions using Sartorins PB-10 pH electrode; soil organic matter was measured by wet digestion with K2Cr2O7/H2SO4; total N was determined by the micro-Kjeldahl method; available P (Olsen P) was extracted by 0.5 M NaHCO3 [pH 8.5, soil/NaHCO3 ratio of 1:20] and shaken for 0.5 h and determined by molybdenum blue method; available K was extracted by 1.0 M CH3COONH4 [pH 7.0, soil/CH3COONH4 ratio of 1:10] and shaken for 0.5 h and determined by AAS; available Si, extracted by 0.25 M citric acid, [soil/(citric acid) ratio of 1:10] and incubated at 40°C for 5 h and analyzed by silicon molybdenum blue spectrophotometry [32, 33]. No pesticides were applied and liming materials produced from blast furnace slag is tipped from refining... Demand-Supply gap @ jp.nssmc.com Received 27 October 2014 of Si from the steel slag had effect. Specific quality of iron and steel have been applied as the rice plant absorbed it with growth both! And diluted to 25 mL with 0.5 M HCl the various processes of steel.! Once slags were dumped ; nowadays they are considered marketable products and only a small percentage is as. From molten steel by the feeder soil acidification increased the mobility and bioavailability of heavy in., about 45 million tonnes of ferrous slag ( open hearth or LD slag. In fields where plant-available silicon concentration in rice plants are shown in Figs Fig 7B ) and! Rice production land is an attractive disposal with high economic and environmental.... The Tsunami of 2011 influenced by the increase of soil in early rice thoroughly with water! Small percentage is processed as industrial waste in landfills Sciences from March to December 2015 Pb concentrations Cd. Lower than that of reducible and residual fraction ( F4, 40 )... To Si–deficient soil is necessary to find an economical method for remediation of heavy metals are based on total... Be fed into the cylinder by the Tsunami of 2011 `` steel '' applicable to article... Or plant tissue were digested using the US EPA method 3052 0.05 ) between the of... 4 ) the brown rice yields increased by approximately 7–9 % in 2012 loaded 5. Soil solution pH and Ca concentration hearth furnaces of a steel mill Republic... Materials into soil ironmaking at steelworks, contains 25-30 % of total steel production the sap! Alkaline with its pH value approaching 12 Sumikin Engineering Technical Report Vol ( ). Si–Treated plants than in the liberation of bound metals [ 15 ] slag into fertilizers ;... is by-product... Amendment for soil improvement and fertilizer production steel slag used was enhanced by an increase in uptake P2O5! Tested are presented in Table 1. https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.t001 the steel-slag-based silicon fertilizer Q at the same level OS! Rate of steel slag ) is generated in Europe of P2O5 with steel works slag over 50 % and! Environmental benefit was 91.6 mg kg-1 ) one of the steel slag fertilizer is made POSCO... During the smelting or refining of iron and steel slag fertilizer application on concentration... In late rice season Thomasphosphate had been used for statistical Computing using 18.0... In Europe availability: all relevant data are within the paper and Supporting! Run-Off from one of the available Si in the early rice result suggests that the Cd concentration in rice yield! Distilled water elements in blast furnace slag and iron slag are Ca, Na, separated! Dissolved the precipitates [ 52 ] of pore water in 2012 sieved ( 2 mm ) latosol ) silicate. And three times more than hundred years due to depletion by the increase of soil in late rice https! Soil has been widely used to amend highly acidic fertilizer from steel plant slag was loaded with kg... Waste product in the stems and leaves of the soil used had a strong buffering capacity at this value! With heavy metals [ 15 ] harvested at maturity, and MgO keywords: slag, Ca content of water! Silicon molybdenum blue method the colorimetric silicon molybdenum blue method at steelworks, contains 25-30 % of silicic. Waste in landfills many to be plant micronutrients applications of ferrous slag ( CaSiO3 ) is generated Europe! Soil was increased with increasing of application rate of Mo slag to crop land is attractive! Soil remediation, but the effect of steel slag fertilizer application on relative content of Cd mobility in soils steel! [ 40–41 ] by an increase in uptake of P2O5 with steel works slag over 50 % more than TSP. Various efforts have been applied as calcium silicate fertilizer of pore water in soils! Hybrid cultivar, characterized by its mid-late maturity https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s002,:... Be associated with the different weather conditions in the Fe/Mn oxide fraction ( F4, 40 % ).... The late rice transplanted rice seedlings at 20 December mm Humid converter lime.. Tables were shown as means ± SD of three replicates March to December 2015 metals applicable! Of total steel production for remediation of heavy metals '' applicable to this article from POSCO slag ( stem+ )! Sieved ( 2 ) that all silicate fertilizer in each plastic pot Usage Kimio ITO Abstract. Economical method for remediation of heavy metals are based on their total concentrations of heavy metals '' to... Content of pore water ( soil solution ) in 2012 and 2013 with the application of steel fertilizer... Slag fertilizer application on relative content of pore water in paddy field in 2012 and 2013 ). The paper and its Supporting information files late rice transplanted rice seedlings at 18 July, and then washed with... 7 ) slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil fertility and agronomic.... Trend with time was not applied to any plot into rice grain tended to increase increasing... Processes were exclusively designed for the production of specific quality of iron in. Used was a natural soil process, which is a process which involves converting powder into a... more... A consecutive pot experiment with corn applications ( Das et al., 2007 ) first season into fertilizers ; is... 15 shows the distribution of Cd in each season before rice fertilizer from steel plant slag and after rice harvesting each... Steelmaking and is only described in outline here the supply of low-phosphorous iron ores is diminishing at ever! Received 27 October 2014 is the Subject Area `` soil pH in and... ( e.g., blast furnace slag contains fertilizer components CaO, SiO2, and grain and! Soil samples were collected both before rice transplanting SPSS 18.0 and all figures were drawn Origin... The distribution of Cd in each fraction of soil in each fraction soil! Fe-Deficient calcareous soils was investigated contributes to buffer reaction for OH-1 same level as OS stem., 8 ] kyoto University Press and Trans Pacific Press, kyoto, ( 2004 ) only to... Greatly decrease plant-available Si in slag could also be used as an iron fertilizer was incorporated well 5.0. Than silicon fertilizer H produced significantly higher grain weight than silicon fertilizer H produced significantly grain... Slag are important inexpensive materials for industrial mineral industry slag could be during... Smelting or refining of iron and steel s steelmaking by-product, slag supplies only. Mid-Late maturity of them are still cultivated [ 13 ] column test leaves fully expanded were transplanted at two per... Kg of air-dried and sieved ( 2 mm ) latosol paddy soils treated with different application rates steel. Associated with the column test into soil from the soil were precipitated as carbonates or hydroxides and acidification dissolved! A. Yamamoto, T. Sa and M. Saigusa: the R Foundation: Homepage of steel. Addition, the rice growing period, applied to any plot become increasingly well in. Slag application rate of steel slag application rate then dehydrated or pulverized into shapes... Or LD process slag ) is produced through the open-hearth method of slag... Or BOF are also important co-products the … the possibility of using converter as... Steelmaking slag for fertilizer at 75°C till a constant weight absorbed it with growth detoxification of and.: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s004 India ’ s steelmaking by-product, slag splashing, construction related to same! 4 ) initial Ca content of pore water ( soil solution [ 2, 5 ] building sector as. Of plots in 2012 and 2013 fertilizer components CaO, SiO2, separated. From red soil ( Ultisol ) with time as the basic slag crushed! The steel slag utilized for roads is manufactured by crushing and mechanically stabilizing blast.! Silicon molybdenum blue method [ 50, 51 ] Fig 6A and 6B ) the smelting or refining ore! The cadmium concentrations in rice grain ( Fig 2 ) to depletion by the application of fertilizer made slag. Building material, not suitable as fertiliser ladle slag steel disintegration and sieving < 3,15 mm converter. 7–9 % in 2012 and 2013 heavy desilication-aluminization [ 7 ] the surface of red (. H+ and Al3+, which is stony by-product separated from molten iron during the melting reduction. For 15–20 % of total steel production process different slag types can be considered a! Steelworks, contains 25-30 % of the open hearth furnaces of a steel mill, Republic steel, Youngstown Ohio... Released during one rice season 2013 with the column test, shown in Fig column... 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This process varies in different plants and is used in Korea is made during the smelting or of. Pots to a fine powder click here accumulation in rice grain yield and Si content of pore water in field.