Italian and Spanish Harrier IIs have participated in overseas conflicts in conjunction with NATO coalitions. [111][112], A March 2012 report in the magazine Air Forces Monthly suggested that the USMC might acquire some of the 72 ex-British Harrier IIs. [51], The AV-8B is equipped with one centerline fuselage and six wing hardpoints (up from five in total on the original Harrier)[52] along with two fuselage stations for a 25 mm GAU-12 cannon and ammunition pack. The AV-8Bs launched from amphibious assault ships in the Persian Gulf, and from forward operating bases such as Ali Al Salem Air Base, Kuwait. Most of these were upgraded to Night Attack Harrier or Harrier II Plus standards, with the remainder being withdrawn from service. The Harrier II and other models of the Harrier family have been called "Jump Jets". The Harrier II also has smaller valve-controlled nozzles in the nose, tail and wingtips to provide control at low airspeeds. [2][19], A YAV-8B Harrier II executing a ski jump takeoff at Naval Air Station Patuxent River. McDonnell Douglas (sekarang Boeing) AV-8B Harrier II adalah sebuah keluarga generasi kedua lepas landas vertikal / pendek dan arahan atauV/STOL ground-attack aircraft sayap tinggi (high wing) akhir abad ke-20. The first combat sorties of the unit's AV-8Bs occurred two days later, with one aircraft lost. [88][103] The Los Angeles Times reported in 2003 that the Harrier family had the highest rate of major accidents among military aircraft in service then, with 148 accidents and 45 people killed. [15] Test results showed greater than expected drag (resistance to forward motion), somewhat hampering the aircraft's maximum speed. Capable of vertical or short takeoff and landing. [39][40] The program aimed to use new and refurbished components to rebuild aircraft at a lower cost than new-built aircraft. The service planned to equip two squadrons with the latter GR.9/9A models due to the well maintained condition of the airframes at RAF Cottesmore, where the aircraft were stored and maintained following their retirement. 59.000+ plastic modelers use us. The USN estimated the cost for remanufacture of each aircraft to be US$23–30 million, instead of $30 million for each new-built aircraft, while the GAO estimated the cost per new aircraft at $24 million. [130][132] Eventually, five aircraft were modified, with the last delivered on 5 December 2003. [9][10] The aim of the Advanced Harrier was to double the AV-8's payload and range, and was therefore unofficially named "AV-16". The UK also participated in the program by manufacturing components for the AV-8B. It is also predicted that additional work to the aircraft's radars and sensor systems may take place. [104] Lon Nordeen notes that several other Marine Corps single-engine strike aircraft, like the A-4 Skyhawk and LTV A-7 Corsair II, had worse accident rates. [29], A Marine Corps AV-8B at MCAS Yuma during night-time training (2005), Fielded in 1991, the Night Attack Harrier was the first upgrade of the AV-8B. On 11 March 1994, the Defense Acquisition Board approved the program, which initially involved 70 aircraft, with four converted in financial year 1994. The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) AV-8B Harrier II is a second-generation vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) ground-attack aircraft. McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II eller British Aerospace Harrier II är en vidareutveckling av den äldre Hawker Siddeley Harrier. [48], As of 2014[update], the USMC is studying potential enhancements to the AV-8B Harrier IIs to keep the type operational until its planned retirement date. [48][121] From November 2001 to March 2002, eight AV-8Bs were embarked aboard the Giuseppe Garibaldi and were deployed to the Indian Ocean in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. In 2007, Boeing signed a $258.5 million performance-based logistics contract to support AV-8B Harriers operated by the U.S. Marine Corps, Italy and Spain. [26] The last of the initial batch of twelve was delivered in January 1985 to the front-line Marine Attack Squadron 331 (VMA-331). The AV-8B Harrier II Plus, with a more powerful engine and advanced radar and avionics, can operate efficiently in darkness and in adverse weather conditions. [131], In March 1993, under the September 1990 Tripartite MoU between the US, Italy and Spain, eight EAV-8B Plus Matadors were ordered, along with a twin-seat TAV-8B. [34] On 30 November 1990, the USN, acting as an agent for the three participating countries, awarded McDonnell Douglas the contract to develop the improved Harrier. McDonnell Douglas (sekarang Boeing) AV-8B Harrier II adalah sebuah keluarga generasi kedua lepas landas vertikal / pendek dan arahan atauV/STOL ground-attack aircraft sayap tinggi (high wing) akhir abad ke-20. [40] Conversion began in April 1994, and the first aircraft was delivered to the USMC in January 1996. [92], A Marine Corps AV-8B hovers as many more are parked on the deck of amphibious assault ship USS Bataan, one month after the start of Operation Iraqi Freedom, The aircraft returned to Iraq during the Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003, acting primarily in support of Marine Corps ground units. ISSN. [69], Indeed, the Harrier II was the first combat aircraft to employ composite materials extensively;[66] they are used on the wings, rudder, flaps, nose, forward fuselage and empennage. [85] The following day, Marine Corps AV-8Bs attacked Iraqi positions in southern Kuwait. [115][116] The attack was described as "the worst loss of U.S. airpower in a single incident since the Vietnam War. During their six-month deployment onboard USS Nassau, 24th MEU Harriers averaged a high mission-capable rate of 91.8 percent. The AV-8B Harrier II is the first operational S/VTOL aircraft used by the United States Navy and Marine Corps. A Taiwanese purchase would have allowed the production line to stay open beyond 2005. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing. The supercritical wing, hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) control principle, and deliberately-engineered lateral stability make the aircraft fundamentally easier to fly. These aircraft each carried a LITENING targeting pod to perform reconnaissance missions along with attack and other missions primarily at night. [35] The Italians ordered 16 Harrier II Plus and two twin-seat TAV-8B aircraft, while the Spaniards signed a contract for eight aircraft. The AV-8B Har­rier II is a sub­sonic at­tack air­craft of metal and com­pos­ite con­struc­tion that re­tains the basic lay­out of the Hawker Sid­de­ley Har­rier, with hor­i­zon­tal sta­bi­liz­ers and shoul­der-mounted wings fea­tur­ing promi­nent an­hedral (down­ward slope). [7] To address this issue, in 1973 Hawker Siddeley and McDonnell Douglas began joint development of a more capable version of the Harrier. Production of both versions ended in 2003 with the St. Louis, Mo., delivery of the last AV-8B. Capable of vertical or short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), the aircraft was designed in the late 1970s as an Anglo-American development of the British Hawker Siddeley Harrier, the first operational V/STOL aircraft. This redesign improves the forward (17° down), side (60°) and rear visibility. It has served aboard aircraft carriers, large assault ships, and even remote forward operating bases. The AV-8B was extensively redesigned by McDonnell Douglas from the earlier AV-8A/C Harrier. Please zoom in and look at all photos. According to Lon Nordeen, the first TAV-8B flew on 21 November 1986. The air­craft is pow­ered by a sin­gle Rolls-Royce Pe­ga­su… [31] The 87th production AV-8B thereafter became the first Harrier II to be modified with equipment for night attacks, having rolled off the McDonnell Douglas production line in June 1987. This aircraft is routinely deployed onboard amphibious assault ships. [18] These modified AV-8s were flight-tested during 1978 and 1979. This was a joint project involving McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) and British Aerospace and aimed to provide the Harrier with improved range and endurance as well as an increased warload. The wing, when used in concert with LERX, allows for a 6,700 lb (3,035 kg) increase in payload compared with the first-generation Harriers after a 1,000 ft (300 m) takeoff roll. [20] Despite these political obstacles, in 1981, the DoD included the Harrier II in its annual budget and five-year defense plan. The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) AV-8B Harrier II is a single-engine ground-attack aircraft that constitutes the second generation of the Harrier Jump Jet family. [82][83][N 2], An AV-8B hovering during the 2012 Miramar Air Show, The AV-8B saw extensive action in the Gulf War of 1990–91. [22] Meanwhile, 75 percent work-share for the engine went to Rolls-Royce, who had previously absorbed Bristol Siddeley, with the remaining 25 percent assigned to Pratt & Whitney. In addition to the AIM-120, the AV-8B Plus can also carry Harpoon and AGM-65 Maverick missiles. [130][131] It was originally planned that the first unit to operate the aircraft would be the 8a Escuadrilla. [121] The twin-seaters, the first to be delivered, arrived at Grottaglie in August 1991. [70] Like the wing, the tail assembly is made up of composites to reduce weight. During the 42 days of combat, 86 Harrier IIs flew 3,380 combat sorties (4,112 combat hours) and delivered more than 6 million pounds of ordnance. [23][24], Four full-scale development (FSD) aircraft were constructed. They carried more fuel than the earlier AV-8As and had higher lift and better cruise characteristics. Modern Air Combat: The Aircraft, Tactics and Weapons Employed in Aerial Combat Today. Due to budgetary constraints, however, the UK abandoned the project in 1975. In 1995, the first Italian-assembled Harrier was rolled out. Miller, Alan C; Sack, Kevin (15 December 2002). Initial deliveries of the Harrier II were designated in service as Harrier GR5; subsequently upgraded airframes were redesignated accordingly as GR7 and GR9. The aircraft is powered by a single Rolls-Royce Pegasus turbofan engine, two intakes and four s… American and Italian AV-8Bs are to be replaced by the Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning II, with the USMC expected to operate its Harriers until at least 2030. Flight tests proved successful and the night attack capability was validated. Because it can land virtually anywhere it has clearance to touch down, the Marine Corps have taken great value from their AV-8B. Loading... Unsubscribe from Javier Rullan Ruano? The AV-8B made its maiden flight in November 1981 and entered service with the USMC in January 1985. In December 2001, Harrier IIs began moving into Afghanistan to a forward base at Kandahar. [5], Despite the apparent advantages of the program, in March 1996 the US General Accounting Office stated that it was financially sounder to buy the Harrier II Plus outright under a procurement program than to remanufacture existing AV-8Bs. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, as the first-generation Harriers entered service with the Royal Air Force (RAF) and United States Marine Corps (USMC), it became increasingly apparent that they were handicapped in range and payload. The aircraft was graded for its ability to meet its mission requirements for navigating, acquiring targets, delivering weapons, and evading and surviving enemy actions, all at the specified range and payload performance. The United States, Spain and Italy coordinated efforts to develop the AV-8B Harrier II Plus, which first flew Sept. 22, 1992. When used, the LITENING II targeting pod achieved greater than 75 percent kill effectiveness on targets. [128], Italian Navy AV-8Bs are slated to be replaced by 15 (originally 22) F-35Bs, which will form the air wing of the Cavour. [130] Designated VA-2 Matadors II by the Spanish Navy (Arma Aérea de la Armada), this variant is known as "EAV-8B" by McDonnell Douglas. Perhaps the most thorough redesign was conducted on the wing, as the standard Pegasus engine was to be retained while performance was expected to match that of the AV-16. Nicely detailed McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II 3d model, made in cinema 4d and ready to render.Includes high quality mesh in multiple formats for your 3d modeling or printing project.Also includes textures, materials logically named and UV map.Included Formats: 3ds,c4d,dae,fbx,obj,stlPolygons: 118402Vertices: 121370 [129], Two EAV-8B Harrier II Plus aircraft from the Spanish aircraft carrier Príncipe de Asturias, Spain, already using the AV-8S Matador, became the first international operator of the AV-8B by signing an order for 12 aircraft in March 1983. A fixed-wing vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft, its ability to take off vertically makes it one of the most maneuverable combat aircraft in service. The AV-8B Harrier II Plus, with a more powerful engine and advanced radar and avionics, can operate efficiently in darkness and in adverse weather conditions. Capable of vertical or short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), the aircraft was designed in the late 1970s as an Anglo-American development of the British Hawker Siddeley Harrier, the first operational V/STOL aircraft. The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) AV-8B Harrier II is a single-engine ground-attack aircraft that constitutes the second generation of the Harrier Jump Jet aircraft family. [8][14], The plan for Harrier II development was authorized by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) in 1976. Site Terms | Privacy and Cookie Statement | Ad Choices [36] The first production aircraft was delivered to St. Louis and, on 17 March 1993, made its first flight. Capable of vertical or short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), the aircraft was designed in the 1980s as an Anglo-American development of the British Hawker Siddeley Harrier, the first operational V/STOL aircraft. It was different from the AV-8B sans suffix in having a forward looking infrared (FLIR) camera added on top of the nose cone, a wide Smiths Industries head-up display (HUD), provisions for night vision goggles, and a Honeywell digital moving map system. [91] On 28 April, the 24th MEU was relieved by the 26th MEU, based on USS Kearsarge. [131] Pilot conversion took place in the US. Early efforts centered around a powerful revamped Rolls-Royce Pegasus engine that would dramatically improve the capabilities of the Harrier. McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II là một loại máy bay thuộc thế hệ thứ 2 trong dòng máy bay cất cánh hạ cánh thẳng đứng/trên đường băng ngắn hay máy bay phản lực đa chức năng V/STOL, loại máy bay này được thiết kế chế tạo vào cuối thế kỷ 20.Hãng British Aerospace đã nối lại … [100], Four Marine Corps AV-8Bs flying in formation over Okinawa, Japan (2011), In addition to major conflicts, Marine Corps AV-8Bs have been deployed in support of various contingency and humanitarian operations, providing fixed-wing air cover and armed reconnaissance. Production of both versions … [87] Five AV-8Bs were lost to enemy surface-to-air missiles, and two Marine pilots were killed. Cancel Unsubscribe. The aircraft, equipped with LGBs, performed operations throughout January and February 2002, during which 131 missions were logged for a total of 647 flight hours. Using knowledge gleaned from the AV-16 effort, though dropping some items—such as the larger Rolls-Royce Pegasus engine—McDonnell Douglas kept the basic structure and engine for an aircraft tailored for the USMC. [130] On 11 May 2000, Boeing and the NAVAIR finalized a contract which would see the company remanufacture Spanish EAV-8Bs to bring them up to Plus standard. [130] The remanufacture would allow the aircraft to carry four AIM-120 AMRAAMs, enhance the pilot's situational awareness through the installation of new radars and avionics, and provide a new engine. The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) AV-8B Harrier II is a single-engine ground-attack aircraft.It is the second generation of the Harrier Jump Jet family. [91], Marine Corps Harrier IIs participated in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan from 2001. [118][122], Deliveries of the initial US-built aircraft began in early 1994 to MCAS Cherry Point for pilot conversion training. 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